Large-scale Evaluation of Genetic Resources of Horsegram
Under the ICAR-DBT Programme on “Characterization and Evaluation of Genetic Resources of Minor Pulses for Crop Improvement”, a total of 2136 accessions of horsegram germplasm collected from different regions of India and across the border were evaluated during rabi 2019-20 at NBPGR Regional Station, Thrissur. The horsegram accessions were evaluated in augmented design with 7 check varieties (AK 21, AK 38, HGGP, PHG 9, DPPI 2278, PAIYUR 1, BIRSA KULTHI) in 23 blocks. The genotypes were assessed based on 19 morphological traits (8 quantitative and 11 qualitative traits) viz., early plant vigour, plant growth habit, plant growth pattern, leaf colour, leaf surface, stem colour, number of primary branches, days to 50% flowering, flower colour, number of pods per plant, pod length, pod shape, pod surface, plant height, number of seeds per pod, seed yield per plant, 100 seed weight, seed colour and YMV susceptibility. No visible variation were observed for the traits leaf surface, flower colour, pod shape and pod surface among the genotypes except for 3 wild accessions, which were distinct with light green leaves, bushy growth habit, blue flower and shriveled black seeds. Among the germplasm 89 accessions exhibited erect growth habit, which is suitable for mechanical harvest. The early flowering nature (<40days) was noticed in 1510 accessions while 70 were late (>70 days) to flower.
The highest number of pods per plant obtained for the best check DPI2278 (132) was surpassed by 23 accessions. IC553492 (251), IC320969 (201), IC55062 (184), IC470167 (181) and IC139423 (180) were the highest pod yielding accessions. A total of 47 genotypes out yielded the best check PHG9 with 12g and the highest yielding accessions includesIC553492 (27.11g), IC342125 (20.84g), IC139423 (20.45g), IC470170 (19.79g) and IC470167 (19.67g). Twenty-one accessions excelled over the check AK 21 with highest hundred seed weight of 5g and the accessions includes namely, IC15724 (5.81g), IC360587 (5.64g), IC360588 (5.54g), IC372629 (5.51g) and IC361192 (5.44g). Seed coat colour polymorphism has been noticed among the genotypes and the whole germplasm were grouped into 16 seed colour categories.
The genotypes were also screened against YMV resistance in the field epiphytotic condition, with respect to 1-9 arbitrary scale for biotic stress susceptibility. seven genotypes viz., IC43515, IC123026, IC123027, IC123028, IC139371, IC139374 and IC139392 were found free of any symptom even at pod maturation stage indicating high resistance against YMV.
(Source: Dr. M Latha, OIC, ICAR-NBPGR, RS Thrissur)